Hien Minh Nguyen 1Huy Truong Nguyen 1Nwet Win 2Chin Piow Wong 2Kim Long Vu Huynh 1Nhat Nam Hoang 2Kiep Minh Do 2Hoai Thi Nguyen 3Duc Viet Ho 3, Minh Duc Nguyen 1Hiroyuki Morita 2

Affiliations collapse


  • 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi, Minh City, 700000, Vietnam.
  • 2Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630-Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan.
  • 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University 49000, Vietnam.
  • PMID: 32163220


The ocotillol (OCT)-type saponins have been known as a tetracyclic triterpenoid, possessing five- or six-membered epoxy ring in the side chain. Interestingly, this type saponin was mostly found in Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv., Araliaceae (VG), hence making VG unique from the other Panax spp. Five OCT-type saponins, majonoside R2, vina-ginsenoside R2, majonoside R1, pseudoginsenoside RT4, vina-ginsenoside R11, together with three protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type saponins and four protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins from VG were evaluated for their antimelanogenic activity. All of isolates were found to be active. More importantly, the five OCT-type saponins inhibited melanin production in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells, without showing any cytotoxicity. Besides ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Rg3 in PPD and notoginsenoside R1 in PPT-type saponins, majonoside R2 was the most potent melanogenesis inhibitory activity in OCT-type saponins. In this article, we highlighted antimelanogenic activity of OCT-type saponins and potential structure-activity relationship (SAR) of ginsenosides. Our results suggested that OCT-type saponins could be used as a depigmentation agent.

Keywords: Panax vietnamensis; antimelanogenic activity; cytotoxicity; ocotillol-type saponins; structure-activity relationship.

© 2020 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.


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