Nhan Trong Le 1,Duc Viet Ho 1,Tuan Quoc Doan 1,Anh Tuan Le 2,Ain Raal 3,Donatella Usai 4,Giuseppina Sanna 5,Antonio Carta 6,Paola Rappelli 4,Nicia Diaz 4,Piero Cappuccinelli 4,*,Stefania Zanetti 4,Hoai Thi Nguyen 1,* and Matthew Gavino Donadu 4,6

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Hue 49000, Viet Nam

2Mientrung Institute for Scientific Research, VAST, Hue 49000, Viet Nam

3Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50900 Tartu, Estonia

4Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy

5Department of Biomedical Science, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy

6Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy

*Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Antibiotics 20209(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9040207

Received: 1 April 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Plant Extracts)

Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the bioactivities of essential oils extracted from the leaves of Paramignya trimera and Limnocitrus littoralis, including cytotoxicity, antiviral, antibacterial, antimycotic, and antitrichomonas effects. Herein, it was indicated that P. trimera and L. littoralis oils showed no cytotoxicity on normal cells, namely MT-4, BHK-21, MDBK, and Vero-76. P. trimera oil (i) exhibited the strongest inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC and MLC values of 2% (v/v); (ii) showed MIC and MLC values of 8% (v/v) in Candida parapsilosis; and (iii) in the remaining strains, showed MIC and MLC values greater than or equal to 16% (v/v). On the other hand, L. littoralis oil (i) displayed the strongest inhibition against Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis with 2% (v/v) of MIC and MLC; and (ii) in the remaining strains, possessed MIC and MLC greater than or equal to 16% (v/v). In addition, antitrichomonas activities of the oils were undertaken, showing IC50, IC90, MLC values, respectively, at 0.016%, 0.03%, and 0.06% (v/v) from P. trimera, and 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.12% (v/v) from L. littoralis, after 48 h of incubation. The oils were completely ineffective against ssRNA+ (HIV-1, YFV, BVDV, Sb-1, CV-B4), ssRNA- (RSV, VSV), dsRNA (Reo-1), and dsDNA (HSV-1, VV) viruses. This is the first report describing the cytotoxicity, antiviral, antibacterial, antimycotic, and antitrichomonas activities of the essential oils of P. trimera and L. littoralisView Full-Text

Keywords: antifungal activityantibacterial activityinfectionsessential oils

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